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Application of the Month

Driving Screws
July, 2007 - View all Application Examples

Linear motion for the positioning of tooling, or parts to be worked on, is a common requirement in automated machinery. Where dual drives are required, precision gearing is critical for positioning performance.

In many applications a single linear device, such as a ball screw or belt drive, can be driven by a single servo motor, which may or may not include a gear head to gain additional mechanical advantage. But, for larger or wider loads dual screws are necessary to provide even or balanced forces. While synchronized servo motors could be used to independently drive each ball screw, precision gearing allows the use of a single servo motor, reducing the expense and complexity of electronic control.

A customer of ours recently requested a drive line solution to mechanically link two ball screws, to allow accurate positioning, with a single servo motor. Information on several different elements was necessary to offer the best solution. These included torque, speed, and available mounting space. Several options were available. Determining the best combination required consideration of all these elements.

The typical solution is to drive the ball screws with precision right angle spiral bevel gearboxes that are connected by a torsionally rigid line shaft. There are several ways this can be done, each with its pluses and minuses, depending on the parameters.

Perhaps the best mechanical solution is to have a center driven right angle box going left and right to each corner gearbox driving each ball screw. This has several advantages. It provides a relatively compact solution, keeping the drive inside the width envelope of the machine. It provides consistent input motion to both corner gearboxes. It also provides the possibility of two stages of speed reduction to optimize gearbox and line shaft sizes, as well as inertia matching for the servomotor.

A point of consideration in this and other applications like it is the span and desired speed of the driving ball screws. In this case the overall motor speed to screw input speed was to have a 2:1 ratio. The question was where best to put the 2:1 reduction, in the first drive box or the corner boxes?

To keep all three boxes the same size, it is best to put the ratio in the corner boxes. These boxes would see half the output torque of the main 1:1 drive box. Doubling the torque through the corner box would mean each box would generate the same output torque, regardless of its location.

But in this instance, the line shafts would be operating at motor speed. If the distance between the boxes was large and the lineshafts long there could be a possibility of shaft whip or the potential of unwanted frequencies. Calculations would have to be performed. On shorter lengths the advantage is in using a smaller and less costly shaft because of the lower torque being carried.

If the initial drive box gets the ratio, there are other advantages and disadvantages. The down side is the first box sees all the torque, so it will get bigger and more expensive. With the multiplied output torque, the line shafts also have to get larger. The only real advantages are that the line shafts run slower and there may be some reflected inertia improvements.

This configuration can work even better if the required speed reduction ratio is higher. The possibility of having ratios in two boxes provides a lot more design versatility.

In many of these applications there is no mounting structure between the screws to install a center drive box. In these cases we have fabricated a mounting flange to what is typically the output side of a "T" style 1:1 bevel box. To this "input" flange we have mounted the servo motor directly, for ratios of 2:1 or less, or either an inline planetary gear head or right angle servo worm when ratios of 3:1 to 5:1, or higher, are required. Half the torque is taken by the gear set of the first screw drive box with the remainder passing through to the second screw drive box, via a line shaft. Because of the longer span between boxes, the line shaft considerations previous discussed will apply.

While some will be concerned about lost motion at the second screw, we accommodate this by using torsionally rigid torque tubes with flexible ends to compensate for shaft misalignment. In a screw drive any potential lost motion due to shaft wind up is minimized by the mechanical advantage of the screw ratio. This is rarely an issue except in the longest of spans. And larger diameter torque tubes can always be used to increase rigidity.

When space is really at a premium we suggest our Servofoxx gearhead which has an optional auxiliary drive shaft. In this design we can mount the servo motor, get a speed reduction into the first screw and have an auxiliary shaft extension to connect the line shaft, all in one unit. It is compact and reduces the number of components to be mounted. It is normally customized for the application, due to the wide variety of ratios and configurations available, therefore it is not an "off the shelf" offering. However, it is a unique problem solver not available elsewhere.

Using mechanically linked drives for synchronized motion is really the most reliable design, especially when both axis are following the exact same motion profile. While servo motor manufacturers will lobby for independent drives, the increased complexity of the control and feedback functions will add unnecessary performance risks. Typical anti-mechanics arguments made by electronic proponents may apply when using standard industrial gear drives. However, DieQua supplies gear products and connecting components designed and optimized for the speed and positioning requirements of the most demanding automated equipment being developed today.

For these and other types of automation applications were the "mech" part of mechatronics is critical, give DieQua a call. We will help you choose the right product for your unique needs and give you advise on how best to integrate it into your motion system design.

Chris Popp
Director of Marketing


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